Per-pixel energy calibration of photon counting detectors

A. Atharifard, J. L. Healy, B. P. Goulter, M. Ramyar, L. Vanden Broeke, M. F. Walsh, C. C. Onyema, R. K. Panta, R. Aamir, D. J. Smithies, R. Doesburg, M. Anjomrouz, M. Shamshad, S. Bheesette, K. Rajendran, N. J.A. De Ruiter, D. Knight, A. Chernoglazov, H. Mandalika, S. T. BellC. J. Bateman, A. P.H. Butler, P. H. Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Energy resolving performance of spectral CT systems is influenced by the accuracy of the detector's energy calibration. Global energy calibration maps a given threshold to the average energy response of all pixels of the detector. Variations arising from CMOS manufacturing processes and properties of the sensor cause different pixels to respond differently to photons of the same energy. Threshold dispersion adversely affects spectral imaging by degrading energy resolution, which contributes to blurring of the energy information. In this paper, we present a technique for per-pixel energy calibration of photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) that quantifies the energy response of individual pixels relative to the average response. This technique takes advantage of the measurements made by an equalized chip. It uses a known global energy map to quantify the effect of threshold dispersion on the energy response of the detector pixels across an energy range of interest. The proposed technique was assessed using a MARS scanner with an equalized Medipix3RX chip flip-bonded to 2 mm thick CdTe semiconductor crystal at a pitch of 110 μm. Measurements were made of characteristic x-rays of a molybdenum foil. Results were compared between the case that the global calibration was used on its own and the case of using it in conjunction with our per-pixel calibration technique. The proposed technique quantified up to 1.87 keV error in energy response of 100 pixels of a selected region of interest (ROI). It made an improvement of 28.3% in average FWHM. The additional information provided by this per-pixel calibration technique can be used to improve spectral reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberC03085
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 27 2017


  • Computerized Tomography (CT) and Computed Radiography (CR)
  • Data processing methods
  • Detector modelling and simulations II (electric fields, charge transport, multiplication and induction, pulse formation, electron emission, etc)
  • Image filtering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematical Physics
  • Instrumentation


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