Pediatric Neuromodulation Comes of Age

Paul E. Croarkin, Alexander Rotenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This special issue surveys recent work and underscores the challenges of psychiatric brain stimulation research with child and adolescent populations. The field of child and adolescent psychopharmacology is replete with examples of potential pitfalls in the assumption that "children are little adults." Arguably, younger age portends more neurobiological and descriptive heterogeneity in research pursuits and clinical practice. For existing brain stimulation modalities, there are a paucity of translational models to design studies for youth and no well-studied dosing schemes. The long-term positive and negative effects of neuromodulation interventions in youth are unknown. Inherent pragmatic and ethical limitations often present barriers for participant recruitment and will necessitate innovative approaches to study design and team efforts. These challenges are not insurmountable, and sustained efforts will advance the growing field of pediatric neuromodulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)578-581
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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