Pathogenesis of Graves' Ophthalmopathy

Franklin H. Epstein, Rebecca S. Bahn, Armin E. Heufelder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

458 Scopus citations


Ophthalmopathy is a potentially disfiguring and sight-threatening component of Graves' disease. It is clinically evident in 25 to 50 percent of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and occurs occasionally in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in those with Graves' disease but no evident thyroid disease1. At present, ophthalmopathy is not preventable, and treatment options for established, symptomatic disease are limited. To develop new strategies for the treatment and prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy, a better understanding of its pathogenesis is necessary. In this paper we review studies aimed at identifying the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to Graves' ophthalmopathy. Clinical Features Patients…

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1468-1475
Number of pages8
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Issue number20
StatePublished - Nov 11 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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