Patent Foramen Ovale, Systemic Embolization, and Closure

David R. Holmes, Howard A. Cohen, Carlos Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Patent foramen ovale has become the subject of increasing interest in modern cardiovascular disease. This has been the result of several factors including, among others, description of paradoxical embolism, documentation of patent foramen ovale with right to left shunt, the rather ubiquitous use of echocardiography, the issue of stroke prevention, and more recently, the relationship between patent foramen ovale and migraine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-530
Number of pages48
JournalCurrent Problems in Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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