Participant-perceived understanding and perspectives on pharmacogenomics: The Mayo Clinic RIGHT protocol (Right Drug, Right Dose, Right Time)

Janet E. Olson, Carolyn R. Rohrer Vitek, Elizabeth J. Bell, Michaela E. McGree, Debra J. Jacobson, Jennifer L. St Sauver, Pedro J. Caraballo, Joan M. Griffin, Veronique L. Roger, Suzette J. Bielinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Purpose:To examine predictors of understanding preemptive CYP2D6 pharmacogenomics test results and to identify key features required to improve future educational efforts of preemptive pharmacogenomics testing.Methods:One thousand ten participants were surveyed after receiving preemptive CYP2D6 pharmacogenomics test results.Results:Eighty-six percent (n = 869) of patients responded. Of the responders, 98% were white and 55% were female; 57% had 4 years or more of post-secondary education and an average age of 58.9 ± 5.5 years. Twenty-six percent said that they only somewhat understood their results and 7% reported they did not understand them at all. Only education predicted understanding. The most common suggestion for improvement was the use of layperson's terms when reporting results. In addition, responders suggested that results should be personalized by referring to medications that they were currently using. Of those reporting imperfect drug adherence, most (91%) reported they would be more likely to use medication as prescribed if pharmacogenomic information was used to help select the drug or dose.Conclusion:Despite great efforts to simplify pharmacogenomic results (or because of them), approximately one-Third of responders did not understand their results. Future efforts need to provide more examples and tailor results to the individual. Incorporation of pharmacogenomics is likely to improve medication adherence.Genet Med advance online publication 05 January 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)819-825
Number of pages7
JournalGenetics in Medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • CYP2D6
  • patient understanding
  • pharmacogenomics
  • preemptive genotyping
  • return Of Results

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)


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