Parkinson's disease, smoking, and family history

Alexis Elbaz, José Maria Manubens-Bertran, Marzia Baldereschi, Monique M.B. Breteler, Francesco Grigoletto, Secundino Lopez-Pousa, Jean François Dartigues, Annik Alpérovitch, Walter A. Rocca, Christophe Tzourio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


There is growing evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The hypothesis of an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors has been little explored, and never using a population-based case-control study design. Our objective was to investigate the possible interaction between smoking and family history in the etiology of PD, as part of a collaborative population-based case-control study. We included 149 nondemented PD patients ascertained in three European prevalence surveys using a two-phase design. Each patient was matched by age(±2 years), gender, and center to three controls drawn from the same populations (n=375). Presence of PD among first-degree relatives and smoking history were assessed through an interview for 127 cases and 306 controls. In the overall sample we found suggestive evidence that family history and ever-smoking interact in determining the risk of PD (P=0.09), with individuals exposed to both risk factors having the highest risk (OR=10.0; 95 % CI=2.0-49.6). Analyses were repeated after stratification into two age-groups (cutoff: 75 years). In older patients, the joint exposure to both risk factors was associated with a significant increase in the risk of PD (OR=17.6; 95 % CI=1.9-160.5). Among younger subjects, the OR for joint exposure was not significant. In conclusion, our findings suggest that smoking and family history interact synergistically on a multiplicative scale in determining the risk of PD in individuals older than 75 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)793-798
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Neurology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2000


  • Case-control
  • Interaction
  • Parkinson's disease Family history
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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