We provide an overview of the varied presentations of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. We also review the onconeural antibodies and their particular oncological and neurological associations. Recognition of these syndromes and their oncological associations is crucial, as early diagnosis and management has been associated with better patient outcomes. Specific management strategies and prognosis vary widely depending on the underlying etiology. An understanding of the relevant clinical details, imaging findings, and other diagnostic information can help tailor treatment approaches. We provide an outline of the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of various paraneoplastic neurological disorders, presenting with central and/or peripheral nervous system involvement. We briefly discuss neurologic immune checkpoint inhibitor-related adverse events, which can occasionally present with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome phenotypes.
- Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome
- immune checkpoint inhibitor
- onconeural antibodies
- paraneoplastic neurological disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology