Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome: growing spectrum and relevance

Valakunja Harikrishna Ganaraja, Mohamed Rezk, Divyanshu Dubey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are group of disorders affecting one or multiple parts of the neuroaxis associated with underlying tumors. An antibody or autoantigen-specific cell-mediated immune response against neural antigen expressed in the tumor is the potential etiology for these rare but refractory disorders. In recent years, wide variety of neurological presentations and autoantibodies has been associated with paraneoplastic autoimmunity, leading to formulation of an updated expert consensus PNS diagnostic criteria. Recognition of these phenotypes and use of serological biomarkers may aid neurologists in early diagnosis of PNS cases encountered in the inpatient or outpatient practice. In this review article, we provide an overview of various clinical, radiological, and immunopathological characteristics of PNS. Furthermore, we discuss the updated PNS criteria and increasing recognition of neurological presentations resembling the PNS among patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3583-3594
Number of pages12
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • PNS criteria
  • Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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