Overexpression of transcripts originating from the MMSET locus characterizes all t(4;14)(p16;q32)-positive multiple myeloma patients

Jonathan J. Keats, Christopher A. Maxwell, Brian J. Taylor, Michael J. Hendzel, Marta Chesi, P. Leif Bergsagel, Loree M. Larratt, Michael J. Mant, Tony Reiman, Andrew R. Belch, Linda M. Pilarski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Scopus citations


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-lineage malignancy characterized by diverse genetic subtypes and clinical outcomes. The recurrent immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch translocation, t(4;14)(p16;q32), is associated with poor outcome, though the mechanism is unclear. Quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for proposed target genes on a panel of myeloma cell lines and purified plasma cells showed that only transcripts originating from the WHSC1/MMSET/NSD2 gene are uniformly dysregulated in all t(4;14) POS patients. The different transcripts detected, multiple myeloma SET domain containing protein (MMSET I), MMSET II, Exon 4a/MMSET III, and response element II binding protein (RE-IIBP), are produced by alternative splicing and alternative transcription initiation events. Translation of the various transcripts, including those from major breakpoint region 4-2 (MB4-2) and MB4-3 breakpoint variants, was confirmed by transient transfection and immunoblotting. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged MMSET I and II, corresponding to proteins expressed in MB4-1 patients, localized to the nucleus but not nucleoli, whereas the MB4-2 and MB4-3 proteins concentrate in nucleoli. Cloning and localization of the Exon 4a/MMSET III splice variant, which contains the protein segment lost in the MB4-2 variant, identified a novel protein domain that prevents nucleolȧr localization. Kinetic studies using photobleaching suggest that the breakpoint variants are functionally distinct from wild-type proteins. In contrast, RE-IIBP is universally dysregulated and also potentially functional in all t(4;14)POS patients irrespective of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) expression or breakpoint type.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4060-4069
Number of pages10
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 15 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Cell Biology


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