Objective: To evaluate outcomes of elective surgical management of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with transvenous right ventricular leads, and compare results between non–lead-induced and lead-induced TR patients. Patients and Methods: We studied patients with right ventricular leads who underwent tricuspid valve surgery from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2015, and categorized them as non–lead-induced and lead-induced TR. Propensity score (PS) for the tendency to have lead-induced TR was estimated from logistic regression and was used to adjust for group differences. Results: From the initial cohort of 470 patients, 444 were included in PS-adjustment analyses (174 non–lead-induced TRs [123 repairs, 51 replacements], 270 lead-induced TRs [129 repairs, 141 replacements]). In PS-adjusted multivariable analysis, lead-induced TR was not associated with mortality (P=.73), but tricuspid valve replacement was (hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.25; P=.008). Five-year freedom from tricuspid valve re-intervention was 100% for non–lead-induced TR and 92.3% for lead-induced TR; rates adjusted for PS differed between groups (P=.005). There was significant improvement in TR postoperatively in each group (P<.001). In patients having tricuspid valve repair, TR grades tended to worsen over time, but the difference in trends was not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: Lead-induced TR did not affect long-term survival after elective tricuspid valve surgery. In patients with lead-induced TR, tricuspid valve re-intervention was more common. Improvement in TR was achieved in both groups after surgery; however, severity of TR tended to increase over follow-up after tricuspid valve repair.
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