Outcome prediction from post-injury resilience in patients with TBI

Adam P. Sima, Hao Yu, Jennifer H. Marwitz, Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner, Elizabeth R. Felix, Thomas F. Bergquist, Gale Whiteneck, Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, Douglas Johnson-Greene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose/Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which 1- and 2-year outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are predicted by resilience. Research Method/Design: This was an observational, longitudinal study of persons (n = 158) with moderate or severe TBI who completed both 1- and 2-year outcome assessments. Outcomes included anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale), substance misuse, and return-to-work measures. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale was used to assess resilience at 3 or 6 months after injury. Results: Greater resilience predicted less anxiety, depression, and substance use and better satisfaction with life and return to work at 1 year after injury for both adjusted and unadjusted models. Standardized regression coefficients were all greater than 0.38 for continuous outcomes, whereas odds ratios were 1.34 and 0.81 for the return to work and substance misuse outcomes, respectively (p < .05). Similar but weaker trends were found at 2 years after injury, with statistical significance no longer met for all outcomes. Conclusions/Implications: Resilience was shown to have predictive ability for outcomes at 1 and 2 years after TBI. Resilience appears to be a salient and important variable for long-term outcomes in person with TBI after adjusting for injury and demographic characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-327
Number of pages8
JournalRehabilitation Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • Anxiety
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Resilience traumatic brain injury
  • Return to work

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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