Optimal dietary therapy of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Melanie B. Gillingham, William E. Connor, Dietrich Matern, Piero Rinaldo, Terry Burlingame, Kaatje Meeuws, Cary O. Harding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Current dietary therapy for long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) or trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency consists of fasting avoidance, and limiting long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake. This study reports the relationship of dietary intake and metabolic control as measured by plasma acylcarnitine and organic acid profiles in 10 children with LCHAD or TFP deficiency followed for 1 year. Subjects consumed an average of 11% of caloric intake as dietary LCFA, 11% as MCT, 12% as protein, and 66% as carbohydrate. Plasma levels of hydroxypalmitoleic acid, hydroxyoleic, and hydroxylinoleic carnitine esters positively correlated with total LCFA intake and negatively correlated with MCT intake suggesting that as dietary intake of LCFA decreases and MCT intake increases, there is a corresponding decrease in plasma hydroxyacylcarnitines. There was no correlation between plasma acylcarnitines and level of carnitine supplementation. Dietary intake of fat-soluble vitamins E and K was deficient. Dietary intake and plasma levels of essential fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acid, were deficient. On this dietary regimen, the majority of subjects were healthy with no episodes of metabolic decompensation. Our data suggest that an LCHAD or TFP-deficient patient should adhere to a diet providing age-appropriate protein and limited LCFA intake (10% of total energy) while providing 10-20% of energy as MCT and a daily multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM) supplement that includes all of the fat-soluble vitamins. The diet should be supplemented with vegetable oils as part of the 10% total LCFA intake to provide essential fatty acids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-123
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular genetics and metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003


  • Acylcarnitines
  • Essential fatty acids
  • Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Long-chain fatty acids
  • Medium-chain triglycerides
  • Trifunctional protein deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimal dietary therapy of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this