In our clinical trials of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus expressing interferon beta (VSV-IFNβ), several patients achieved initial responses followed by aggressive relapse. We show here that VSV-IFNβ-escape tumors predictably express a point-mutated CSDE1P5S form of the RNA-binding Cold Shock Domain-containing E1 protein, which promotes escape as an inhibitor of VSV replication by disrupting viral transcription. Given time, VSV-IFNβ evolves a compensatory mutation in the P/M Inter-Genic Region which rescues replication in CSDE1P5S cells. These data show that CSDE1 is a major cellular co-factor for VSV replication. However, CSDE1P5S also generates a neo-epitope recognized by non-tolerized T cells. We exploit this predictable neo-antigenesis to drive, and trap, tumors into an escape phenotype, which can be ambushed by vaccination against CSDE1P5S, preventing tumor escape. Combining frontline therapy with escape-targeting immunotherapy will be applicable across multiple therapies which drive tumor mutation/evolution and simultaneously generate novel, targetable immunopeptidomes associated with acquired treatment resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Physics and Astronomy
- General Chemistry
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology