Novel use of Kaplan-Meier methods to explain age and gender differences in hypertension control rates

Kent R. Bailey, Brandon R. Grossardt, John W. Graves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Despite 40 years of research demonstrating the efficacy of antihypertensive medications for lowering blood pressure and decreasing cardiovascular disease, hypertension control rates worldwide remain low. We explored here how both medication efficacy rates and patient/physician decision-making (discontinuation rates) affect overall hypertension control rates. To do this we introduced the use of Kaplan-Meier methodology to predict hypertension control rates separately within age strata. An important aspect of our analysis is the use of a "treatment intensity score," including both the number of agent(s) and the percentage of maximal dose of agent(s). We investigated how blood pressure control rates vary with age, gender, and treatment intensity. Our analysis found that both efficacy and discontinuation rates at different treatment intensities vary with age and gender, so that for each increase in age by 1 decade, the log hazard of achieving controlled blood pressure at any given intensity decreases by 0.10 in men and 0.20 in women. Overall hypertension control rates ranged from 80.8% for persons age 15 to 39 years to only 42.1% for persons age ≥80 years. Our analysis more accurately represents achievable hypertension control rates, with differences by gender, than previous work, because we investigated the contributions of efficacy and treatment aggressiveness in the control of hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)841-847
Number of pages7
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2008


  • Aging
  • Antihypertensive medication
  • Gender
  • Hypertension
  • Survival analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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