Normal range of motion of the cervical spine: An initial goniometric study

J. W. Youdas, T. R. Garrett, V. J. Suman, C. L. Bogard, H. O. Hallman, J. R. Carey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

269 Scopus citations


The purposes of this study were (1) to determine normal values for cervical active range of motion (AROM) obtained with a 'cervical-range-of- motion' (CROM) instrument on healthy subjects whose ages spanned 9 decades, (2) to determine whether age and gender affect six cervical AROMs, and (3) to examine the intratester and intertester reliability of measurements obtained. Measurements were made on 337 subjects (171 females and 166 males) whose ages ranged from 11 to 97 years. Measurements were taken by five physical therapists with 7 to 30 years of clinical and teaching experience. Among male and female subjects of the same age, females had a greater AROM than did males for all AROMs except neck flexion. Among both males and females, each of the six cervical AROMs decreased significantly with age. From two pilot studies separate from the acquisition of the normal database, we determined our intratester and intertester reliabilities for making neck AROM measurements with the CROM instrument. We concluded that AROM measurements on the cervical spine with the CROM instrument demonstrated good intratester and intertester reliability, because the intraclass correlation coefficients were generally greater than 80.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)770-780
Number of pages11
JournalPhysical Therapy
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1992


  • Cervical vertebrae
  • Kinesiology/biomechanics
  • Range of motion
  • Spine
  • Tests and measurements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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