Noninvasive Neuromodulation in Migraine

Benzion Blech, Amaal J. Starling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: The past two decades has seen an influx of noninvasive neuromodulation devices aimed at treatment of various primary headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. This narrative review is to summarize the current options in noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine. Recent Findings: A variety of noninvasive neuromodulation devices have been FDA cleared and marketed for use in migraine, including single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS), noninvasive vagal nerve stimulators (nVNS), and external trigeminal nerve stimulators (eTNS). Newer devices include peripheral electrical stimulation devices (PES), caloric stimulation, and others. Each has varying levels of evidence supporting its use in migraine, tolerability profiles, and access issues. Summary: Noninvasive neuromodulation devices can be beneficial when used in patients with migraine, with minimal side effects. As more devices are developed, approved, and marketed in the future, rigorous research on efficacy and safety remain a top priority.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number78
JournalCurrent pain and headache reports
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Migraine
  • Neurostimulation
  • Noninvasive
  • eTNS
  • nVNS
  • sTMS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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