Non-Vascular Considerations When Interpreting Extremity Arterial and Venous Examinations

Dania G. Malik, Nirvikar Dahiya, Scott W. Young, Lauren Xuan Xin Heng, Maitray D. Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Peripheral arterial and venous examinations are performed regularly in vascular labs and interpreted by physicians of different specialities. Many vascular examinations have nonvascular pathology that is either inadvertently imaged by the sonographer or imaged with intent as it relates to patient's symptoms. It is prudent for every reader of vascular studies to be acquainted with the sonographic appearance of these non-vascular lesions to enable appropriate and optimal interpretation that has a direct bearing on patient's clinical care. Our review includes a discussion of the nonvascular pathologies like lymph nodes, soft tissue edema, soft tissue fluid collections, musculotendinous injuries, soft tissue masses, and joint and bursal pathologies that may be encountered during interpretation of vascular exams. The pictorial essay includes a discussion of their sonographic appearances and pitfalls in interpretation. Multiple illustrative examples and sonographic images of the non-vascular pathologies found during interpretation of vascular studies have been utilized to highlight their appearances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3145-3158
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • deep vein thrombosis
  • duplex ultrasound
  • fluid collections
  • lymph nodes
  • soft tissue masses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-Vascular Considerations When Interpreting Extremity Arterial and Venous Examinations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this