New antiepileptic drugs: Focus on ezogabine, clobazam, and perampanel

Leslie A. Rudzinski, Nayme J. Vlez-Ruiz, Evan R. Gedzelman, Elizabeth A. Mauricio, Jerry J. Shih, Ioannis Karakis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Ezogabine, clobazam, and perampanel are among the newest antiseizure drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 2011 and 2012. Ezogabine and perampanel are approved for adjunctive treatment of partial epilepsy. Perampanel is also approved for adjunctive treatment of primary generalized tonicclonic seizures. Ezogabine and perampanel have novel mechanisms of action. Ezogabine binds to voltage-gated potassium channels and increases the M-current thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. Perampanel is a selective, non-competitive 2-amino-3-(3- hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptor antagonist, which reduces neuronal excitation. Clobazam has been used worldwide since the 1970s and is approved for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox- Gastaut syndrome. Clobazam is the only 1,5- benzodiazepine currently in clinical use, which is less sedating than the commonly used 1,4- benzodiazepines. Phase III multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials demonstrated efficacy and good tolerability of these 3 new antiepileptic drugs. These drugs represent a welcome addition to the armamentarium of practitioners, but it remains to be seen how they will affect the landscape of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1087-1101
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Investigative Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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