Neuromuscular ultrasound standardized scanning techniques and protocols: Expert panel recommendations

Eman A. Tawfik, Michael S. Cartwright, Nens van Alfen, Hubertus Axer, Andrea J. Boon, Nicholas Crump, Alexander Grimm, Lisa D. Hobson-Webb, Antonios Kerasnoudis, Ross Mandeville, David C. Preston, Sarada Sakamuri, Nortina Shahrizaila, Susan Shin, Steven J. Shook, Einar Wilder-Smith, Francis O. Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Neuromuscular ultrasound has become an integral part of the diagnostic workup of neuromuscular disorders at many centers. Despite its growing utility, uniform standard scanning techniques do not currently exist. Scanning approaches for similar diseases vary in the literature creating heterogeneity in the studies as reported in several meta-analysis. Moreover, neuromuscular ultrasound experts including the group in this study have different views with regards to technical aspects, scanning protocols, and the parameters that should be assessed. Establishing standardized neuromuscular scanning protocols is essential for the development of the subspeciality to ensure uniform clinical and research practices. Therefore, we aimed to recommend consensus-based standardized scanning techniques and protocols for common neuromuscular disorders using the Delphi approach. A panel of 17 experts participated in the study, which consisted of three consecutive electronic surveys. The first survey included voting on six scanning protocols addressing the general scanning technique and five common categories of suspected neuromuscular disorders. The subsequent surveys focused on refining the protocols and voting on new steps, rephrased statements, or areas of non-agreement. A high degree of consensus was achieved on the general neuromuscular ultrasound scanning technique and the scanning protocols for focal mononeuropathies, brachial plexopathies, polyneuropathies, amyotophic lateral sclerosis, and muscle diseases. In this study, a group of neuromuscular ultrasound experts developed six consensus-based neuromuscular ultrasound scanning protocols that may serve as references for clinicians and researchers. The standardized protocols could also aid in achieving high-quality uniform neuromuscular ultrasound practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-379
Number of pages5
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • guidelines
  • neuromuscular ultrasound
  • scanning protocols
  • sonography
  • standards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Neuromuscular ultrasound standardized scanning techniques and protocols: Expert panel recommendations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this