National Sleep Foundation's sleep quality recommendations: first report

Maurice Ohayon, Emerson M. Wickwire, Max Hirshkowitz, Steven M. Albert, Alon Avidan, Frank J. Daly, Yves Dauvilliers, Raffaele Ferri, Constance Fung, David Gozal, Nancy Hazen, Andrew Krystal, Kenneth Lichstein, Monica Mallampalli, Giuseppe Plazzi, Robert Rawding, Frank A. Scheer, Virend Somers, Michael V. Vitiello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

279 Scopus citations


Objectives To provide evidence-based recommendations and guidance to the public regarding indicators of good sleep quality across the life-span. Methods The National Sleep Foundation assembled a panel of experts from the sleep community and representatives appointed by stakeholder organizations (Sleep Quality Consensus Panel). A systematic literature review identified  277 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Abstracts and full-text articles were provided to the panelists for review and discussion. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 3 rounds of voting was used to determine agreement. Results For most of the sleep continuity variables (sleep latency, number of awakenings >5 minutes, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency), the panel members agreed that these measures were appropriate indicators of good sleep quality across the life-span. However, overall, there was less or no consensus regarding sleep architecture or nap-related variables as elements of good sleep quality. Conclusions There is consensus among experts regarding some indicators of sleep quality among otherwise healthy individuals. Education and public health initiatives regarding good sleep quality will require sustained and collaborative efforts from multiple stakeholders. Future research should explore how sleep architecture and naps relate to sleep quality. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-19
Number of pages14
JournalSleep Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • Aging
  • Sleep architecture
  • Sleep efficiency
  • Sleep quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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