National athletic trainers' association position statement: Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury

Darin A. Padua, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Timothy E. Hewett, William E. Garrett, Stephen W. Marshall, Grace M. Golden, Sandra J. Shultz, Susan M. Sigward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care and fitness professionals with recommendations based on current evidence regarding the prevention of noncontact and indirect-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in athletes and physically active individuals. Background: Preventing ACL injuries during sport and physical activity may dramatically decrease medical costs and long-Term disability. Implementing ACL injury-prevention training programs may improve an individual's neuromuscular control and lower extremity biomechanics and thereby reduce the risk of injury. Recent evidence indicates that ACL injuries may be prevented through the use of multicomponent neuromusculartraining programs. Recommendations: Multicomponent injury-prevention training programs are recommended for reducing noncontact and indirect-contact ACL injuries and strongly recommended for reducing noncontact and indirect-contact knee injuries during physical activity. These programs are advocated for improving balance, lower extremity biomechanics, muscle activation, functional performance, strength, and power, as well as decreasing landing impact forces. A multicomponent injury-prevention training program should, at minimum, provide feedback on movement technique in at least 3 of the following exercise categories: strength, plyometrics, agility, balance, and flexibility. Further guidance on training dosage, intensity, and implementation recommendations is offered in this statement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-19
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of athletic training
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2018


  • Injury Prevention
  • Knee Injuries
  • Lower Extremity Biomechanics
  • Neuromuscular Control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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