Nanoparticle-Enabled Multiplexed Electrochemical Immunoassay for Detection of Surface Proteins on Extracellular Vesicles

Seonhwa Lee, Bruno P. Crulhas, Sonja Suvakov, Stanislav V. Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S. Verkhoturov, Michael J. Eller, Harmeet Malhi, Vesna D. Garovic, Emile A. Schweikert, Gulnaz Stybayeva, Alexander Revzin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer particles secreted from various cells. EVs carry molecular information of parent cells and hold considerable promise for early disease diagnostics. This paper describes a general strategy for multiplexed immunosensing of EV surface proteins, focusing on surface markers CD63, CD81, nephrin, and podocin to prove the concept. This sensing strategy entailed functionalizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with two types of antibodies and then tagging with metal ions, either Pb2+ or Cu2+. The metal ions served as redox reporters, generating unique redox peaks at -0.23 and 0.28 V (vs Ag/AgCl) during electrochemical oxidation of Pb2+ and Cu2+, respectively. Capture of EVs on the working electrode, followed by labeling with immunoprobes and square wave voltammetry, produced redox currents proportional to concentrations of EVs and levels of expression of EV surface markers. Importantly, metal-ion tagging of immunoprobes enabled detection of two EV surface markers simultaneously from the same electrode. We demonstrated dual detection of either CD63/CD81 or podocin/nephrin surface markers from urinary EVs. The NP-enabled immunoassay had a sensitivity of 2.46 × 105 particles/mL (or 40.3 pg/mL) for CD63- and 5.80 × 105 particles/mL (or 47.7 pg/mL) for CD81-expressing EVs and a linear range of four orders of magnitude. The limit of detection for podocin and nephrin was 3.1 and 3.8 pg/mL, respectively. In the future, the capacity for multiplexing may be increased by extending the repertoire of metal ions used for redox tagging of AuNPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52321-52332
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number44
StatePublished - Nov 10 2021


  • biomarker
  • electrochemical biosensors
  • extracellular vesicles
  • immunoassays
  • simultaneous detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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