Murine Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Penclomedine [3,5-Dichloro-2,4-dimethoxy-β-(trichloromethyl)pyridine, NSC 338720]

Joel M. Reid, Dane A. Mathiesen, Linda M. Benson, Mary J. Kuffel, Matthew M. Ames

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18 Scopus citations


Penclomedine, a highly substituted pyridine derivative, has been selected by the National Cancer Institute for evaluation as a potential anticancer agent based on antitumor activity observed in murine tumor models following i.v., p.o., and i.p. administration. We have developed a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography assay for PEN, and subsequently investigated murine pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Following rapid i.v. injection of PEN (300 mg/m2) to mice, plasma elimination was best described by a 2-compartment open model with an elimination phase half-life, total body clearance, and steady-state distribution volume of 69 min, 114 ml/min/m2, and 4800 ml/m2, respectively. While PEN displayed good p.o. absorption, bioavailability of PEN after p.o. administration was approximately 2% of that observed following i.v. administration. Metabolism contributed substantially to drug clearance, and total metabolites were slowly eliminated from plasma. After i.v. and p.o. administration of radiolabeled PEN, <1.2% of the parent drug was excreted in the 48-h urine, and 25-30% of the total radioactivity was recovered in urine. NADPH-dependent oxidative and reductive metabolism was observed when penclomedine was incubated with mouse microsomal preparations. Microsomal reductive metabolism of PEN led to formation of a metabolite tentatively identified as a molecule formed by dimerization of the radical species produced by cleavage of chlorine from the trichloromethyl moiety of penclomedine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2830-2834
Number of pages5
JournalCancer research
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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