Multiple short‐echo (2.5‐ms) quantitation of in vivo sodium T2 relaxation

William H. Perman, David M. Thomasson, Matt A. Bernstein, Patrick A. Turski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The MR behavior of the sodium‐23 nucleus in vivo is a complex problem which has generated considerable interest over the last 20 years. Early studies on excised tissue samples revealed that the sodium nucleus exhibited a two‐component T2 relaxation. This biexponential T2 relaxation was characterized by a short component with a T2=0.7–4.8 ms, and a long component with a T2=7.0−26.0 ms. We have developed a 3D pulse sequence capable of performing multiple Hahn echo in vivo sodium‐23 imaging at echo times as short as 2.5 ms. This sequence obtains the shorter spin echo times by presaturating the spins outside of the desired imaging region, allowing the use of nonselective rf pulses. Using this sequence we have been able to quantify the long and short T2 components of normal brain tissue, vitreous humor of the eye, and a rabbit VX‐2 carcinoma. We found that gray matter and white matter of normal brain have a monoexponential T2 relaxation with T2=17.6 ± 2.4 ms. The vitreous humor T2 relaxation is also monoex‐ ponential with T2=56.8 ± 2.1 ms. However, we find that some of the rabbit VX2 carcinomas exhibit a biexponential T2 decay with a short component of 3.3 ± 4.6 ms and a long component of 22.0 ± 9.0 ms. © 1989 Academic Press, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-160
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1989

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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