Background: Medullary thyroid cancer, although most commonly sporadic, may be part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes, generally due to mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. The majority of these mutations are located in exons 10, 11, and 13-16. More rarely, mutations in other exons have been described. We report for the first time a family from the United States with a rare mutation involving exon 8 of the RET proto-oncogene, corresponding to a p.Gly533Cys substitution (G533C) leading to the development of MEN2A syndrome in several affected family members. This mutation had only been previously described in a large family in Brazil and in 7.75% of patients with apparently sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in Greece. Methods: Given a strong index of suspicion, a genetic analysis to evaluate for uncommon mutations in the RET proto-oncogene identified the presence of the G533C missense mutation, despite initial negative screening for common mutations. We describe a family with a total of 47 individuals from five generations with multiple members affected with this mutation. Results: Our data suggest that in patients with this mutation, pheochromocytoma is more common than previously reported, and that in some cases this mutation may be associated with a more aggressive phenotype than initially described. Conclusions: MEN2A due to the G533C mutation in exon 8 may be more common and more aggressive than previously recognized. In patients with medullary thyroid cancer with negative screening for common mutations in the RET oncogene but a strong index of suspicion, DNA sequence analysis of less commonly involved exons should be considered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism