Hematopoietic stem cell aging, through the acquisition of somatic mutations, gives rise to clonal hematopoiesis (CH). While a high prevalence of CH has been described in otherwise healthy older adults, CH confers an increased risk of both hematologic and non-hematologic diseases. Classification of CH into clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS) further describes this neoplastic myeloid precursor state and stratifies individuals at risk of developing clinically significant complications. The sequential acquisition of driver mutations, such as DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1, provide a selective advantage and lead to clonal expansion. Inflammation, microbiome signatures, and external selective pressures also contribute to clonal evolution. Despite significant progress in recent years, the precise molecular mechanisms driving CH transformation to hematologic neoplasms are not well defined. Further understanding of these complex mechanisms may improve risk stratification and introduce therapeutic interventions in CH. Here we discuss the genetic drivers underpinning CH, mechanisms for clonal evolution, and transformation to hematologic neoplasm.
- clonal hematopoiesis
- hematologic neoplasms
- hematopoietic stem cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Space and Planetary Science