Molecular pathology endpoints useful for aging studies

L. J. Niedernhofer, J. L. Kirkland, W. Ladiges

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The first clinical trial aimed at targeting fundamental processes of aging will soon be launched (TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin). In its wake is a robust pipeline of therapeutic interventions that have been demonstrated to extend lifespan or healthspan of preclinical models, including rapalogs, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and senolytics. This ensures that if the TAME trial is successful, numerous additional clinical trials are apt to follow. But a significant impediment to these trials remains the question of what endpoints should be measured? The design of the TAME trial very cleverly skirts around this based on the fact that there are decades of data on metformin in humans, providing unequaled clarity of what endpoints are most likely to yield a positive outcome. But for a new chemical entity, knowing what endpoints to measure remains a formidable challenge. For economy's sake, and to achieve results in a reasonable time frame, surrogate markers of lifespan and healthy aging are desperately needed. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of molecular endpoints that are currently being used as indices of age-related phenomena (e.g., morbidity, frailty, mortality) and proposes an approach for validating and prioritizing these endpoints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-249
Number of pages9
JournalAgeing Research Reviews
StatePublished - May 1 2017


  • Aging endpoints
  • Biological age
  • Geropathology
  • Molecular pathology
  • Surrogate markers of aging
  • Translational biomarkers of aging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Aging
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neurology


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