Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG and aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG among patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) and healthy controls, to determine whether seropositive cases fulfilled their respective diagnostic criteria, to compare characteristics and outcomes in children with POMS versus MOG-IgG-associated disease (MOGAD), and identify clinical features associated with final diagnosis. Methods: Patients with POMS and healthy controls were enrolled at 14 US sites through a prospective case–control study on POMS risk factors. Serum AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG were assessed using live cell-based assays. Results: AQP4-IgG was negative among all 1,196 participants, 493 with POMS and 703 healthy controls. MOG-IgG was positive in 30 of 493 cases (6%) and zero controls. Twenty-five of 30 patients positive with MOG-IgG (83%) had MOGAD, whereas 5 of 30 (17%) maintained a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) on re-review of records. MOGAD cases were more commonly in female patients (21/25 [84%] vs 301/468 [64%]; p = 0.044), younger age (mean = 8.2 ± 4.2 vs 14.7 ± 2.6 years; p < 0.001), more commonly had initial optic nerve symptoms (16/25 [64%] vs 129/391 [33%]; p = 0.002), or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM; 8/25 [32%] vs 9/468 [2%]; p < 0.001), and less commonly had initial spinal cord symptoms (3/20 [15%] vs 194/381 [51%]; p = 0.002), serum Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) positivity (11/25 [44%] vs 445/468 [95%]; p < 0.001), or cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (5/25 [20%] vs 243/352 [69%]; p < 0.001). Interpretation: MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG were not identified among healthy controls confirming their high specificity for pediatric central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. Five percent of those with prior POMS diagnoses ultimately had MOGAD; and none had AQP4-IgG positivity. Clinical features associated with a final diagnosis of MOGAD in those with suspected MS included initial ADEM phenotype, younger age at disease onset, and lack of EBV exposure. ANN NEUROL 2023;93:271–284.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology