Modified X Waves with Improved Field Properties

Tai K. Song, J. Y. lu, J. F. Greenleaf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


A method to obtain a good compromise between the depth of field and the lateral resolution of “X waves” is proposed. The original X waves are theoretically nondiffracting beams generated by a specially phased infinite transmit aperture. When generated by a finite aperture, X waves are diffracting beams but have a large depth of field, maintaining uniform lateral field profiles. The proposed modification of the wave equation solution for X waves replaces a constant parameter representing the propagation angle of ultrasound with a function of radial distance at the aperture surface, and results in modified X waves that have a larger depth of field than the original X waves. Computer simulations show that a proper choice of the modification function can produce a new beam with improved field properties compared with the original X waves, promising images with higher lateral resolution and increased contrast over a large depth of field in high frame rate medical imaging. Experimental results are presented to verify the simulation results of the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-47
Number of pages12
JournalUltrasonic Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1993


  • Annular array
  • depth of field
  • lateral resolution
  • nondiffracting beams
  • transmit focus
  • ultrasonic B-mode imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Modified X Waves with Improved Field Properties'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this