Mitral Valve Prolapse Patients with Less than Moderate Mitral Regurgitation Exhibit Early Cardiac Chamber Remodeling

Li Tan Yang, So Woon Ahn, Zhenhua Li, Giovanni Benfari, Rekha Mankad, Masaaki Takeuchi, Robert A. Levine, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Hector I. Michelena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Mild physiologic mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in normal individuals. Patients with primary MR due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) may also exhibit less than moderate MR. We sought to determine whether MVP patients with less than moderate MR displayed early cardiac chamber remodeling or factors related to early remodeling and whether early remodeling predicted MR progression. Methods: Consecutive MVP patients with less than moderate MR by proximal isovelocity surface area–derived effective regurgitant orifice < 20 mm2 and regurgitant volume < 30 mL, were matched for age and sex with non-MVP patients (controls) having less than moderate MR. Patients with moderate or greater dysfunctional left- or right-sided valves and left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% were excluded. We evaluated left ventricle (LV) and left atrium (LA) remodeling parameters (LV end-diastolic and end-systolic indexed diameters, LA volume-index, and LV mass-index) as well as determinants of remodeling. The last available transthoracic echocardiography was reviewed to identify progression to moderate-severe MR or more. Results: A total of 253 MVP patients with less than moderate MR were matched to 344 controls (P for age and sex, ≥.18) with less than moderate MR. Patients with MVP (mean effective regurgitant orifice and regurgitant volume, 12 ± 4 mm2 and 18 ± 6 mL, respectively) had more premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), larger LV and LA remodeling parameters, and more mild-to-moderate MR (all P < .0001). Multivariate linear regression models showed that larger LV remodeling parameters were independently associated with MVP and female sex but not MR severity (all P < .0001). The LA volume index was independently associated with MVP, age, and E/e' (all P < .0001). The LV mass index was associated with MVP, age, and hypertension (all P ≤ .002). Presence of PVCs was associated with LV end-systolic diameter ≥ 40 mm and indexed ≥ 22 mm2 (P = .005). Among 323 (54%) patients having subsequent transthoracic echocardiography, 17 patients (all MVP) progressed to moderate-severe MR or more at a median of 4.3 (interquartile range, 1.7-6.4) years. Isolated posterior leaflet prolapse was the single factor associated with MR progression (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.70; 95% CI, 0.99-7.34; P = .048) after adjustment for MR severity. At a median of 5.9 (interquartile range, 4.6-7.2) years of follow-up, female sex and MVP (vs controls) were protective factors for mortality. Conclusions: Patients with less than moderate MR due to MVP exhibit early LV and LA remodeling, which does not predict MR progression or mortality. Left ventricle remodeling is associated with MVP, female sex, and presence of PVCs. Early chamber remodeling associated with MVP may be the phenotypical expression of a genetically mediated process and is at least partially related to PVCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-825.e2
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Left atrial remodeling
  • Left ventricular remodeling
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Mitral valve prolapse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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