Minimizing TE in moment‐nulled or flow‐encoded two‐and three‐dimensional gradient‐echo imaging

Matt A. Bernstein, Ann Shimakawa, Norbert J. Pelc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


A method for minimizing field‐echo delay in moment‐nulled gradient‐echo imaging is presented. Even though ramps are accounted for, the analysis yields simple closed‐form solutions. The method is then generalized to the section‐select waveform for three‐dimensional volume imaging and to flow encoding for phase‐contrast imaging. Three strategies for first‐moment selection in phase‐contrast imaging are discussed, including a new strategy that always yields the minimum echo delay. Trapezoidal and triangular gradient lobe shapes are analyzed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)583-588
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1992


  • Gradient waveforms
  • Model, mathematical
  • Phase imaging
  • Pulse sequences
  • Rapid imaging
  • Three‐dimensional imaging
  • Vascular studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Minimizing TE in moment‐nulled or flow‐encoded two‐and three‐dimensional gradient‐echo imaging'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this