Minimally invasive, endoscopic-assisted device for subdural electrode implantation in epilepsy

Sanjeet S. Grewal, Mark Benscoter, Stephen Kuehn, Brian N. Lundstrom, Matthew Stead, Gregory Worrell, Jamie J. van Gompel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Subdural grids and strip electrodes provide wide coverage of the cerebral cortex, precise delineation of the extent of the seizure onset zone, and improved spatial sampling to perform functional mapping for eloquent cortex. OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel device that allows for a minimally invasive approach to implantation of subdural grid and strip electrodes. METHODS: A skull mounted device was created to allow for implantation of subdural electrodes through a keyhole craniotomy with direct visualization using the aid of a flexible neurovideoscope. The initial studies in preparation for grid development performed on cadaveric skulls were analyzed to determine the size of craniotomy required for deployment, maximal distance of strip electrode deployment from center of craniotomy, and visual inspection of the cortex was performed for any underlying damage. RESULTS: The device allowed for the placement of subdural electrodes through a 40-mm craniotomy. Subdural electrodes were deployed in multiple directions to a distance of a 70-mm radius from the center of the craniotomy. There was no visual damage to the underlying cortex after the procedures were completed. CONCLUSION: Large craniotomies are typically desired to provide direct visualization of the implantation of subdural electrodes, but can increase the risk of subdural hemorrhages and infections. This study describes a novel minimally invasive endoscopically assisted device for the implantation of subdural strip electrodes under direct visualization. With this device, we are able to limit the size of the craniotomy, avoid incision through the temporalis muscle, and implant subdural electrodes with visualization of the cortex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)92-97
Number of pages6
JournalOperative Neurosurgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Intracranial electroencephalography
  • Minimally invasive
  • Subdural electrodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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