Mimics of Erdheim–Chester disease

the Mayo Clinic-University of Alabama at Birmingham Histiocytosis Working Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare histiocytic neoplasm with frequent multiorgan involvement. An accurate diagnosis of ECD requires the correlation of clinical features, histopathologic and radiologic findings. We describe a case series of patients with a referral diagnosis of ECD, whereby the diagnosis was changed to non-histiocytic diseases after comprehensive review at a tertiary care center. This accurate revision of the referral diagnosis of ECD enabled initiation of proper disease-directed therapy in a timely manner for these patients and avoided unnecessary exposure to systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted agents. Our study highlights the value of a multidisciplinary team of histiocytosis experts in confirming the diagnosis of ECD and also brings attention to other conditions to consider that can mimic ECD, including osteopoikilosis, tenosynovial giant cell tumour, IgG4-related disease, fibrous dysplasia and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)984-994
Number of pages11
JournalBritish journal of haematology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • cancer
  • genetics
  • histiocytosis
  • histopathology
  • radiography
  • tumour board

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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