Methylome, transcriptome, and PPARγ cistrome analyses reveal two epigenetic transitions in fat cells

Hitomi Takada, Yutaka Saito, Toutai Mituyama, Zong Wei, Eiji Yoshihara, Sandra Jacinto, Michael Downes, Ronald M. Evans, Yasuyuki S. Kida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Although DNA modification is adaptive to extrinsic demands, little is known about epigenetic alterations associated with adipose differentiation and reprogramming. We systematically characterized the global trends of our methylome and transcriptome data with reported PP ARγ cistrome data. Our analysis revealed that DNA methylation was altered between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). Surprisingly, DNA methylation was not obviously changed in differentiation from ADSCs to mature fat cells (FatCs). This indicates that epigenetic predetermination of the adipogenic fate is almost established prior to substantial expression of the lineage. Furthermore, the majority of the PP ARγ cistrome corresponded to the pre-set methylation profile between ADSCs and FatCs. In contrast to the pre-set model, we found that a subset of PP ARγ-binding sites for late-expressing genes such as Adiponectin and Adiponectin receptor2 were differentially methylated independently of the early program. Thus, these analyses identify two types of epigenetic mechanisms that distinguish the pre-set cell fate and later stages of adipose differentiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1195-1206
Number of pages12
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2014


  • Adipose derived stem cells
  • DNA methylation
  • Epigenetics
  • Fat cells
  • Fat differentiation
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells
  • Reprogramming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research


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