Menopausal hormone therapy in women with medical conditions

Ekta Kapoor, Juliana M. Kling, Angie S. Lobo, Stephanie S. Faubion

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hormone therapy is the most effective treatment for menopause-related symptoms. Current evidence supports its use in young healthy postmenopausal women under the age of 60 years, and within 10 years of menopause, with benefits typically outweighing risks. However, decision making is more complex in the more common clinical scenario of a symptomatic woman with one or more chronic medical conditions that potentially alter the risk-benefit balance of hormone therapy use. In this review, we present the evidence relating to the use of hormone therapy in women with chronic medical conditions such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, venous thromboembolism, and autoimmune diseases. We discuss the differences between oral and transdermal routes of administration of estrogen and the situations when one route might be preferred over another. We also review evidence regarding the effect of different progestogens, when available.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101578
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • diabetes
  • hormone therapy
  • hypertension
  • menopause
  • obesity
  • venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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