Measuring nicotine dependence among smokeless tobacco users

Janet L. Thomas, Jon O. Ebbert, Christi A. Patten, Lowell C. Dale, Carrie A. Bronars, Darrell R. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence among 68 adult ST users enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial of bupropion SR. FTQ-ST scores were not found to differ between those with and without a current DIS-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence (7.4 ± 2.1 vs. 6.8 ± 2.8, P = 0.325). For all possible FTQ-ST cutoff scores, the observed agreement between the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV was not found to be different from that expected due to chance. FTQ-ST total scores were positively correlated with serum cotinine (Spearman's r = 0.40, P < 0.001), amount of tobacco used (r = 0.51 and r = 0.41 for average dips/chews per day; average tins/pouches per week, respectively, P < 0.001), and a reduced likelihood of abstinence at 3 months (OR = 0.76, 95% C.I. 0.61-0.96; P = 0.019). Participants meeting DIS-IV criteria had lower cotinine concentrations than those without this diagnosis (411 ± 263 ng/ml vs. 493 ± 246 ng/ml; P = 0.042). Poor concordance was observed between the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV in the assessment of nicotine dependence in ST users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1511-1521
Number of pages11
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • DIS-IV
  • Nicotine dependence
  • Smokeless
  • Tobacco
  • Tobacco use cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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