Measuring left ventricular ejection fraction-techniques and potential pitfalls

Thomas A. Foley, Sunil V. Mankad, Nandan S. Anavekar, Crystal R. Bonnichsen, Michael F. Morris, Todd D. Miller, Philip A. Araoz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Prognosis and therapeutic decisions are often based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), which means the LVEF needs to be accurately measured. Many imaging modalities can measure LVEF. Each of these modalities is subject to measurement errors that can lead to the inaccurate calculation of LVEF. This article reviews the most common non-invasive imaging modalities - i.e., echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide angiography, gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and gated myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) - used to measure LVEF, as well as the common sources of error with each of them. It is important to understand these sources of errors in order to prevent them, and recognise them when they do occur so that they can be corrected if possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-114
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Cardiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012


  • Computed tomography
  • Echocardiography
  • Left ventricular ejection fraction
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Multiple-gated acquisition
  • Radionuclide angiography
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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