Measurements of pertinent concentrations of oxygen in vivo

H. M. Swartz, S. Boyer, P. Gast, J. F. Glockner, H. Hu, K. J. Liu, M. Moussavi, S. W. Norby, N. Vahidi, T. Walczak, M. Wu, R. B. Clarkson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


A new method able to measure the concentration of oxygen in complex biological systems, including in vivo, has been developed using low‐frequency EPR and newly characterized free radicals that are very sensitive to the concentration of oxygen. The free radicals (fusinite and lithium phthalocyanine) are very stable in tissues (for at least 150 days), apparently nontoxic, and can reflect oxygen concentrations that are less than the Km of cytochrome oxidase (0.1 μM or lower). Their biological stability is indicated by the fact that repeated measurements with fusinite of the concentration of oxygen in skeletal muscle have been made in the same animal for more than 150 days without any change in sensitivity or signs of toxicity. © 1991 Academic Press, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)333-339
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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