Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the initial injury after hepatectomy in mice

Norifumi Ohashi, Tomohide Hori, Florence Chen, Sura Jermanus, Akimasa Nakao, Shinji Uemoto, Justin H. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


AIM: To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the pathogenesis of postoperative liver failure (PLF) after extended hepatectomy (EH). METHODS: An insufficient volume of the remnant liver (RL) results in higher morbidity and mortality, and a murine model with 80%-hepatectomy was used. All investigations were performed 6 h after EH. Mice were first divided into two groups based on the postoperative course (i.e., the PLF caused or did not), and MMP-9 expression was measured by Western blotting. The source of MMP-9 was then determined by immunohistological stainings. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 is the endogenous inhibitor of MMP-9, and MMP-9 behavior was assessed by the experiments in wild-type, MMP-9(-/-) and TIMP-1(-/-) mice by Western blotting and gelatin zymography. The behavior of neutrophils was also assessed by immunohistological stainings. An anti-MMP-9 monoclonal antibody and a broadspectrum MMP inhibitor were used to examine the role of MMP-9. RESULTS: Symptomatic mice showed more severe PLF (histopathological assessments: 2.97 ± 0.92 vs 0.11 ± 0.08, P < 0.05) and a higher expression of MMP-9 (71085 ± 18274 vs 192856 ± 22263, P < 0.01). Nonnative leukocytes appeared to be the main source of MMP-9, because MMP-9 expression corresponding with CD11b positive-cell was observed in the findings of immunohistological stainings. In the histopathological findings, the PLF was improved in MMP-9(-/-) mice (1.65% ± 0.23% vs 0.65% ± 0.19%, P < 0.01) and it was worse in TIMP-1(-/-) mice (1.65% ± 0.23% vs 1.78% ± 0.31%, P < 0.01). Moreover, neutrophil migration was disturbed in MMP-9(-/-) mice in the immunohistological stainings. Two methods of MMP-9 inhibition revealed reduced PLF, and neutrophil migration was strongly disturbed in MMP-9-blocked mice in the histopathological assessments (9.6 ± 1.9 vs 4.2 ± 1.2, P < 0.05, and 9.9 ± 1.5 vs 5.7 ± 1.1, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: MMP-9 is important for the process of PLF. The initial injury is associated with MMP-9 derived from neutrophils, and MMP-9 blockade reduces PLF. MMP-9 may be a potential target to prevent PLF after EH and to overcome an insufficient RL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3027-3042
Number of pages16
JournalWorld journal of gastroenterology
Issue number20
StatePublished - 2013


  • Hepatectomy
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Portal hypertension
  • Shear stress
  • Sinusoidal injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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