Markers used for visualization and quantification of blood and lymphatic vessels

Mohamed E. Salama, David A. Eberhard, Steven J. Potts

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In order to study angiogenesis and vascular networks in histology samples, an appropriate stain for endothelial cell surfaces is required. This chapter reviews the various possible antibodies used to identify blood and lymph vessel endothelium, and other vascular markers in both immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent studies. Two categories of human endothelial cell-specific antibodies are commonly used: the pan-endothelial cell markers and antibodies that bind selectively to activated or proliferating endothelium. The chapter concludes with a review and discussion of potential clinical uses of angiogenesis quantification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMolecular Histopathology and Tissue Biomarkers in Drug and Diagnostic Development
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781493926817
ISBN (Print)9781493926800
StatePublished - Jun 15 2015


  • Angiogenesis
  • CD31
  • CD34
  • Digital pathology
  • Microvessel density
  • Tissue image analysis
  • Vascular

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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