Manual development for the treatment of child and adolescent disorders

Euthymia D. Hibbs, Gregory Clarke, Lily Hechtman, Howard B. Abikoff, Laurence L. Greenhill, Peter S. Jensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


There has been a proliferation of treatment manuals in the past decade as part of an effort to operationalize treatment applications and standardize treatments across subjects, settings, and therapists. In this article we present the essential elements needed to develop manuals for the psychosocial and psychopharmacological treatments of child and adolescent disorders, using one modality or in multimodal treatment trials. We delineate how to integrate various treatment components for psychosocial and psychopharmacological manuals, as well as those for control conditions. We also examine the therapist variable as it concerns training and adherence to the structured or flexible scripted manuals. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of manuals in terms of how they may affect outcome, recommending that treatments be both empirically grounded and clinically meaningful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)619-629
Number of pages11
JournalPsychopharmacology bulletin
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997


  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Manuals
  • Therapy
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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