Managing uncommon and unexpected findings during neuromuscular ultrasound

Francis O. Walker, Michael S. Cartwright, Christopher H. Hunt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


One barrier to widespread adoption of neuromuscular ultrasound by clinical neurophysiologists is concern over how to identify and manage non-neuromuscular findings. This review addresses this concern by describing the sonographic appearance of a variety of commonly observed pathologies and anatomic variants in dermal, subcutaneous, bony, glandular, lymphatic, vascular, and other superficial tissues. Additionally, it outlines techniques to ensure proper clinical and ultrasound evaluation of unexpected or uncommon findings. Finally, it highlights strategies to manage unexpected findings, including how to best communicate findings to patients and referring clinicians to avoid unnecessary testing and ensure appropriate follow-up. Ultrasound extends the ability of the neuromuscular sonographer-clinician to contribute to patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)793-806
Number of pages14
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • anatomic variant
  • calcification
  • differential diagnosis
  • incidental finding
  • muscle ultrasound
  • nerve ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)


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