Long-term treatment with responsive brain stimulation in adults with refractory partial seizures

Gregory K. Bergey, Martha J. Morrell, Eli M. Mizrahi, Alica Goldman, David King-Stephens, Dileep Nair, Shraddha Srinivasan, Barbara Jobst, Robert E. Gross, Donald C. Shields, Gregory Barkley, Vicenta Salanova, Piotr Olejniczak, Andrew Cole, Sydney S. Cash, Katherine Noe, Robert Wharen, Gregory Worrell, Anthony M. Murro, Jonathan EdwardsMichael Duchowny, David Spencer, Michael Smith, Eric Geller, Ryder Gwinn, Christopher Skidmore, Stephan Eisenschenk, Michel Berg, Christianne Heck, Paul Van Ness, Nathan Fountain, Paul Rutecki, Andrew Massey, Cormac O'Donovan, Douglas Labar, Robert B. Duckrow, Lawrence J. Hirsch, Tracy Courtney, Felice T. Sun, Cairn G. Seale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

292 Scopus citations


Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of responsive direct neurostimulation was assessed in adults with medically refractory partial onset seizures. Methods: All participants were treated with a cranially implanted responsive neurostimulator that delivers stimulation to 1 or 2 seizure foci via chronically implanted electrodes when specific electrocorticographic patterns are detected (RNS System). Participants had completed a 2-year primarily open-label safety study (n 65) or a 2-year randomized blinded controlled safety and efficacy study (n 191); 230 participants transitioned into an ongoing 7-year study to assess safety and efficacy. Results: The average participant was 34 (±11.4) years old with epilepsy for 19.6 (±11.4) years. The median preimplant frequency of disabling partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures was 10.2 seizures a month. The median percent seizure reduction in the randomized blinded controlled trial was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years (p < 0.0001, generalized estimating equation) and ranged from 48% to 66% over postimplant years 3 through 6 in the long-term study. Improvements in quality of life were maintained (p < 0.05). The most common serious device-related adverse events over the mean 5.4 years of follow-up were implant site infection (9.0%) involving soft tissue and neurostimulator explantation (4.7%). Conclusions: The RNS System is the first direct brain responsive neurostimulator. Acute and sustained efficacy and safety were demonstrated in adults with medically refractory partial onset seizures arising from 1 or 2 foci over a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. This experience supports the RNS System as a treatment option for refractory partial seizures. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically refractory partial onset seizures, responsive direct cortical stimulation reduces seizures and improves quality of life over a mean follow-up of 5.4 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)810-817
Number of pages8
Issue number8
StatePublished - Feb 24 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-term treatment with responsive brain stimulation in adults with refractory partial seizures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this