Long-Term Outcomes of Anticoagulation for Bioprosthetic Valve Thrombosis

Ioana Petrescu, Alexander C. Egbe, Filip Ionescu, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, Kevin L. Greason, Cristina Pislaru, Patricia A. Pellikka, Heidi M. Connolly, Sorin V. Pislaru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Early in the prevention and treatment of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BPVT), anticoagulation is effective, but the long-term outcome after BPVT is unknown. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes of patients with BPVT treated with anticoagulation. Methods: This analysis was a matched cohort study of patients treated with warfarin for suspected BPVT at the Mayo Clinic between 1999 and 2017. Results: A total of 83 patients treated with warfarin for suspected BPVT (age 57 ± 18 years; 45 men [54%]) were matched to 166 control subjects; matching was performed according to age, sex, year of implantation, and prosthesis type and position. Echocardiography normalized in 62 patients (75%) within 3 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 to 6 months) of anticoagulation; 21 patients (25%) did not respond to warfarin. Median follow-up after diagnosis was 34 months (IQR: 17 to 54 months). There was no difference in the primary composite endpoint between the patients with BPVT and the matched control subjects (log-rank test, p = 0.79), but the former did have a significantly higher rate of major bleeding (12% vs. 2%; p < 0.0001). BPVT recurred (re-BPVT) in 14 (23%) responders after a median of 23 months (IQR: 11 to 39 months); all but one re-BPVT patient responded to anticoagulant therapy. Patients with BPVT had a higher probability of valve re-replacement (68% vs. 24% at 10 years’ post-BPVT; log-rank test, p < 0.001). Conclusions: BPVT was associated with re-BPVT and early prosthetic degeneration in a significant number of patients. Indefinite warfarin anticoagulation should be considered after a confirmed BPVT episode, but this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk of bleeding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)857-866
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 3 2020


  • anticoagulation
  • bioprosthetic valve thrombosis
  • prosthetic valve failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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