Long-term outcome of esthesioneuroblastoma: Hyams grade predicts patient survival

Jamie J. Van Gompel, Caterina Giannini, Kerry D. Olsen, Eric Moore, Manolo Piccirilli, Robert L. Foote, Jan C. Buckner, Michael J. Link

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Object: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform plate. Controversy still exists regarding the role of pathologic grading (Hyams grade) in prognostication. This study was undertaken to describe our experience with ENB and assess the role of pathologic grading in patient outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-institution experience, including 109 patients with ENB treated at our institution from 1962 to 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed utilizing Cox regression analysis models utilizing age, gender, modified Kadish stage, and Hyams grade. Results: Mean age was 49 ± 16 (median 50) years at presentation (range 12 to 90 years). Median follow up was 5.1 years. All-cause mortality was significantly in fluenced by Hyams grading in univariate (p = 0.04) and multivariate (p = 0.02) analysis, in addition to proven prognostic factors, Kadish staging, lymph node metastasis, and age. Median survival was 9.8 years compared with 6.9 years with low (grade 1 to 2) versus high (grade 3 to 4) Hyams grade. Median overall survival was 7.2 ± 0.7 years. Conclusion: ENB has a variable outcome, which is primarily prognosticated by the extent of involvement at presentation (Kadish stage and lymph node metastasis) and higher Hyams pathologic grade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-336
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • Esthesioneuroblastoma
  • Hyams grade
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma
  • Outcome
  • Surgical treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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