Although hyperprolinemia type-II has a discriminative metabolic phenotype and is frequently associated with neurological system involvement, the casual relation between the metabolic abnormalities and the clinical features, except for those of the secondary B6 deficiency, has been frequently debated. In order to evaluate disease frequency and the neuro-metabolic outcome we searched our laboratory database between 1992 and 2010, including 20,991 urinary organic acid profiles. From these individuals 16,720 parallel blood samples were available, and were investigated by serum amino acid analysis. We also evaluated the clinical, neurological, psychological features, laboratory data and vitamin levels and therapeutic effect in metabolically confirmed hyperprolinemia. Due to the mitochondrial localization of both ALDH4A1 and PRODH mitochondrial enzyme complex activity was evaluated and oxygen consumption was measured to assess ATP production in patient-fibroblasts. The Mitochondrial Disease Score was used to evaluate clinical mitochondrial dysfunction. The child behavior checklist was used to screen for psychopathology. We found four patients with increased urinary P5C diagnosed with hyperprolinemia type II, and only one patient had hyperprolinemia type I. All children with hyperprolinemia type II had low normal B6 concentration, and three of the patients had biochemical markers suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed in a muscle biopsy in one case. Intellectual disability was found in two adolescent patients. All patients showed seizures and significant behavioral problems, including anxiety and hallucinations. The clinical course was non-progressive and independent from the B6 concentration and B6 therapy. Hyperprolinemia is a rare inborn error. Individuals with hyperprolinemia should be monitored closely due to their frequent behavioral problems.
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