Polycystic kidney diseases (PKD) are characterized by excessive proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells, development of fluid-filled cysts, and progressive renal insufficiency. cAMP inhibits proliferation of normal renal tubular epithelial cells but stimulates proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells derived from patients with PKD. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells, which are widely used as an in vitro model of cystogenesis, also proliferate in response to cAMP. Intracellular cAMP levels are tightly regulated by phosphodiesterases (PDE). Isoform-specific PDE inhibitors have been developed as therapeutic agents to regulate signaling pathways directed by cAMP. In other renal cell types, we have previously demonstrated that cAMP is hydrolyzed by PDE3 and PDE4, but only PDE3 inhibitors suppress proliferation by inhibiting Raf-1 activity (Cheng J, Thompson MA, Walker HJ, Gray CE, Diaz Encarnacion MM, Warner GM, Grande JP. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287:F940-F953, 2004.) A potential role for PDE isoform( s) in cAMP-mediated proliferation of MDCK cells has not previously been established. Similar to what we have previously found in several other renal cell types, cAMP hydrolysis in MDCK cells is directed primarily by PDE4 (85% of total activity) and PDE3 (15% of total activity). PDE4 inhibitors are more effective than PDE3 inhibitors in increasing intracellular cAMP levels in MDCK cells. However, only PDE3 inhibitors, and not PDE4 inhibitors, stimulate mitogenesis of MDCK cells. PDE3 but not PDE4 inhibitors activate B-Raf but not Raf-1, as assessed by an in vitro kinase assay. PDE3 but not PDE4 inhibitors activate the ERK pathway and activate cyclins D and E, as assessed by histone H1 kinase assay. We conclude that mitogenesis of MDCK cells is regulated by a functionally compartmentalized intracellular cAMP pool directed by PDE3. Pharmacologic agents that stimulate PDE3 activity may provide the basis for new therapies directed toward reducing cystogenesis in patients with PKD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology