Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CRd) for light-chain amyloidosis: Long-term results from a phase 2 trial

Shaji K. Kumar, Suzanne R. Hayman, Francis K. Buadi, Vivek Roy, Martha Q. Lacy, Morie A. Gertz, Jacob Allred, Kristina M. Laumann, Leif P. Bergsagel, David Dingli, Joseph R. Mikhael, Craig B. Reeder, A. Keith Stewart, Steven R. Zeldenrust, Philip R. Greipp, John A. Lust, Rafael Fonseca, Stephen J. Russell, S. Vincent Rajkumar, Angela Dispenzieri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis remains incurable despite recent therapeutic advances. Given the activity of the lenalidomidealkylating agent combination in myeloma, we designed this phase 2 trial of lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone in AL amyloidosis. Thirty-five patients, including 24 previously untreated, were enrolled. Nearly one-half of the patients had cardiac stage III disease and 28% had ≥ 3 organs involved. The overall hematologic response (≥ partial response [PR]) rate was 60%, including 40% with very-good partial response or better. Using serum-free light chain for assessing response, 77% of patients had a hematologic response. Organ responses were seen in 29% of patients and were limited to those with a hematologic response. The median hematologic progressionfree survival was 28.3 months, and the median overall survival was 37.8 months. Hematologic toxicity was the predominant adverse event, followed by fatigue, edema, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A grade 3 or higher toxicity occurred in 26 patients (74%) including ≥ grade 3 hematologic toxicity in 16 patients (46%) and ≥ grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity in 25 patients (71%). Seven patients (20%) died on study, primarily because of advanced disease. Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CRd) is an effective combination for treatment of AL amyloidosis and leads to durable hematologic responses as well as organ responses with manageable toxicity. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00564889).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4860-4867
Number of pages8
Issue number21
StatePublished - May 24 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Cell Biology


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