Lack of GNAS Remethylation During Oogenesis May Be a Cause of Sporadic Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib

Angelo Milioto, Monica Reyes, Patrick Hanna, Zentaro Kiuchi, Serap Turan, Daniel Zeve, Chhavi Agarwal, Giedre Grigelioniene, Ang Chen, Veronica Mericq, Myrto Frangos, Svetlana Ten, Giovanna Mantovani, Isidro B. Salusky, Peter Tebben, Harald Jüppner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to parathyroid hormone resistance in the proximal renal tubules. Maternal pathogenic STX16/GNAS variants leading to maternal epigenetic GNAS changes impair expression of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα) thereby causing autosomal dominant PHP1B. In contrast, genetic defects responsible for sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) remain mostly unknown. Objective: Determine whether PHP1B encountered after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) causes GNAS remethylation defects similar to those in sporPHP1B. Design: Retrospective analysis. Results: Nine among 36 sporPHP1B patients investigated since 2000, all with loss of methylation (LOM) at the 3 maternal GNAS differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and gain of methylation at the paternal NESP DMR, had been conceived through IVF or ICSI. Besides abnormal GNAS methylation, IVF/ICSI PHP1B cases revealed no additional imprinting defects. Three of these PHP1B patients have dizygotic twins, and 4 have IVF/ICSI-conceived siblings, all with normal GNAS methylation; 2 unaffected younger siblings were conceived naturally. Conclusion: Sporadic and IVF/ICSI-conceived PHP1B patients revealed indistinguishable epigenetic changes at all 4 GNAS DMRs, thus suggesting a similar underlying disease mechanism. Given that remethylation at the 3 maternal DMRs occurs during oogenesis, male factors are unlikely to cause LOM postfertilization. Instead, at least some of the sporPHP1B variants could be caused by a defect or defects in an oocyte-expressed gene that is required for fertility and for re-establishing maternal GNAS methylation imprints. It remains uncertain, however, whether the lack of GNAS remethylation alone and the resulting reduction in Gsα expression is sufficient to impair oocyte maturation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E1610-E1619
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • GNAS methylation
  • Gs-alpha
  • Gsα
  • ICSI
  • IVF
  • PHP1B
  • PTH
  • STX16-GNAS
  • calcium
  • epigenetics
  • in vitro fertilization
  • intracytoplasmic sperm injection
  • phosphate
  • pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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