Chronic kidney disease is common in patients with multiple myeloma. Historically, individuals with end-stage renal disease and multiple myeloma did poorly with renal transplantation due to higher mortality rates from the malignancy itself or associated comorbidities. However, over the past 2 decades, there have been significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma with the advent of new therapeutic agents resulting in an improvement of long-term survival. As a result, more individuals with multiple myeloma are being referred for kidney transplantation, especially those with good functional capacity and minimal comorbidities. Recent literature has suggested that certain patients with multiple myeloma can successfully undergo renal transplantation after stem transplantation with consideration for maintenance therapy, although caution should be used with immunomodulating drugs due to the anecdotally reported risk of acute rejection. Therefore, having a multidisciplinary approach with the transplant team and hematology both before and after transplant is crucial in maximizing the chance of success for these individuals. This review summarizes the literature on renal transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma as well as the therapeutic advancements that have occurred which may allow certain patients to undergo successful transplantation.
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